Balance of State Wages 2023

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Architecture and Engineering

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Aerospace Engineers
Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.
43.84 38.93 40.30 45.74 45.88 45.88
Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
35.01 22.96 25.72 29.26 38.49 52.59
Civil Engineers
Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, and geotechnical engineers. Excludes “Hydrologists” (19-2043).
55.33 36.57 42.46 48.74 67.61 82.21
Electrical Engineers
Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061).
59.10 41.88 51.21 58.00 64.77 74.57
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, adjust, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions. Excludes “Broadcast Technicians” (27-4012).
44.57 29.79 39.44 45.66 47.88 58.17
Engineering Technologists and Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other
All engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters, not listed separately.
35.93 18.60 22.93 38.52 42.04 54.42
Engineers, All Other
All engineers not listed separately. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031), “Locomotive Engineers” (53-4011), and “Ship Engineers” (53-5031).
61.08 38.07 53.07 60.22 71.35 77.60
Environmental Engineers
Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines. Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.
57.55 39.62 49.30 57.95 63.45 81.82
Industrial Engineers
Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination. Excludes “Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors” (17-2111).
66.36 44.06 50.03 63.54 78.77 98.60
Mechanical Engineers
Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.
65.42 44.88 51.79 62.78 73.66 84.71
Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers
Conduct subsurface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites. May specify the ground support systems, processes, and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities. May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions. May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs. Excludes “Petroleum Engineers” (17-2171).
56.46 41.53 42.43 50.01 62.14 82.71
Petroleum Engineers
Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.
60.72 28.66 39.74 61.88 79.54 96.41
Surveying and Mapping Technicians
Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist, to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps. Excludes “Cartographers and Photogrammetrists” (17-1021), “Surveyors" (17-1022), and “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers” (19-2042).
35.00 18.36 24.61 30.79 49.69 49.91
Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth’s surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.
44.02 26.88 34.70 38.13 53.05 71.38

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Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports and Media

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Broadcast Announcers and Radio Disc Jockeys
Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio, television, or other communications media. May play and queue music, announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests. Excludes “News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists” (27-3023).
23.80 15.00 15.00 23.18 30.91 35.00
Coaches and Scouts
Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports for the primary purpose of competition. Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation. May evaluate athletes’ strengths and weaknesses as possible recruits or to improve the athletes’ technique to prepare them for competition. Those required to hold teaching certifications should be reported in the appropriate teaching category. Excludes “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091).
40,440.00 29,170.00 31,550.00 35,240.00 45,540.00 61,160.00
Graphic Designers
Design or create graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs, such as packaging, displays, or logos. May use a variety of mediums to achieve artistic or decorative effects. Excludes “Web and Digital Interface Designers” (15-1255).
24.63 14.83 18.44 22.70 32.13 38.55
Interpreters and Translators
Interpret oral or sign language, or translate written text from one language into another.
31.53 18.16 21.13 29.12 35.25 50.00
Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers
Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.
18.30 15.17 15.20 17.13 19.34 21.56
News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists
Narrate or write news stories, reviews, or commentary for print, broadcast, or other communications media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, or television. May collect and analyze information through interview, investigation, or observation.
24.35 17.85 21.48 23.19 23.19 23.44
Producers and Directors
Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or film productions for entertainment, information, or instruction. Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.
29.09 19.23 23.71 29.78 30.10 45.47
Public Relations Specialists
Promote or create an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations. May write or select material for release to various communications media. May specialize in using social media.
33.44 18.61 26.27 31.10 40.63 48.58
Technical Writers
Write technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, or operating and maintenance instructions. May assist in layout work.
36.95 25.00 30.00 38.75 45.00 45.12

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Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.
25.22 14.97 21.01 24.72 30.67 32.14
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners
Keep buildings in clean and orderly condition. Perform heavy cleaning duties, such as cleaning floors, shampooing rugs, washing walls and glass, and removing rubbish. Duties may include tending furnace and boiler, performing routine maintenance activities, notifying management of need for repairs, and cleaning snow or debris from sidewalk.
19.17 14.16 15.57 18.16 22.39 25.83
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers
Landscape or maintain grounds of property using hand or power tools or equipment. Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units. Excludes “Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse” (45-2092).
21.89 14.40 16.03 22.18 25.64 31.75
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners
Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.
18.59 14.08 15.70 17.32 20.36 23.43

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Business and Financial Operations

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Accountants and Auditors
Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data. Excludes “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).
41.90 27.25 32.43 38.40 46.89 54.31
Budget Analysts
Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports. Excludes “Financial and Investment Analysts” (13-2051).
48.08 32.30 39.75 48.46 56.42 60.03
Business Operations Specialists, All Other
All business operations specialists not listed separately.
42.18 26.26 32.55 40.52 50.37 58.71
Buyers and Purchasing Agents
38.26 22.99 28.63 35.84 45.26 57.30
Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists
Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.
38.76 29.00 32.34 37.13 41.91 48.28
Compliance Officers
Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes “Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (19-5012), “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093), “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).
47.32 31.45 35.80 47.87 56.30 62.27
Financial and Investment Analysts
Conduct quantitative analyses of information involving investment programs or financial data of public or private institutions, including valuation of businesses. Excludes “Budget Analysts” (13-2031), “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054), and “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031).
48.40 26.15 30.53 35.11 50.76 96.31
Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization. May design and produce promotional materials. May also raise awareness of the organization’s work, goals, and financial needs.
29.07 16.15 25.04 28.24 29.77 45.22
Human Resources Specialists
Recruit, screen, interview, or place individuals within an organization. May perform other activities in multiple human resources areas. Excludes “Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists” (13-1141) and “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151).
36.69 24.53 29.47 36.06 41.85 50.09
Loan Officers
Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, loan underwriters, and payday loan officers.
40.29 19.38 27.14 29.56 43.55 211,160.00
Analyze and coordinate the ongoing logistical functions of a firm or organization. Responsible for the entire life cycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources. Excludes “Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers” (11-3071) and “Project Management Specialists” (13-1082).
38.39 25.32 31.76 37.88 44.08 52.93
Management Analysts
Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Includes program analysts and management consultants. Excludes “Computer Systems Analysts” (15-1211) and “Operations Research Analysts” (15-2031).
52.23 36.11 42.18 49.37 61.08 72.91
Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists
Research conditions in local, regional, national, or online markets. Gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or plan a marketing or advertising campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. May employ search marketing tactics, analyze web metrics, and develop recommendations to increase search engine ranking and visibility to target markets. Excludes “Web and Digital Interface Designers” (15-1255), “Art Directors” (27-1011), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), and “Public Relations Specialists” (27-3031).
30.21 21.30 27.00 27.00 33.16 38.21
Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners
Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.
24.67 13.81 14.61 24.49 32.37 38.76
Personal Financial Advisors
Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate. Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives. May also buy and sell financial assets for clients. Excludes “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031).
67.88 16.52 23.41 29.96 41.43 *
Project Management Specialists
Analyze and coordinate the schedule, timeline, procurement, staffing, and budget of a product or service on a per project basis. Lead and guide the work of technical staff. May serve as a point of contact for the client or customer. Excludes “Management Occupations” (11-0000), “Logisticians” (13-1081), “Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners” (13-1121), and “Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks” (43-5061).
53.01 30.40 36.31 49.18 62.31 79.90
Property Appraisers and Assessors
35.51 25.92 28.45 33.17 39.82 48.04
Training and Development Specialists
Design or conduct work-related training and development programs to improve individual skills or organizational performance. May analyze organizational training needs or evaluate training effectiveness. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1194) and “Other Teachers and Instructors” (25-3000). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
39.68 20.23 29.44 37.14 51.60 59.68

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Community and Social Services

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Child, Family, and School Social Workers
Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children. May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers.
31.43 18.70 21.78 29.57 37.81 47.07
Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.
24.96 16.49 16.61 16.63 28.10 44.70
Community Health Workers
Promote health within a community by assisting individuals to adopt healthy behaviors. Serve as an advocate for the health needs of individuals by assisting community residents in effectively communicating with healthcare providers or social service agencies. Act as liaison or advocate and implement programs that promote, maintain, and improve individual and overall community health. May deliver health-related preventive services such as blood pressure, glaucoma, and hearing screenings. May collect data to help identify community health needs. Excludes “Health Education Specialists” (21-1091).
27.11 17.44 19.23 20.51 26.61 46.22
Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other
All community and social service specialists not listed separately.
32.11 15.35 19.77 20.33 30.12 45.86
Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselors and Advisors
Advise and assist students and provide educational and vocational guidance services.
34.22 22.43 29.31 33.99 39.23 46.38
Health Education Specialists
Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles. Use data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments. May link health systems, health providers, insurers, and patients to address individual and population health needs. May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs. Excludes “Community Health Workers” (21-1094).
31.57 22.43 25.30 27.61 38.03 44.23
Healthcare Social Workers
Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses. Services include advising family caregivers. Provide patients with information and counseling, and make referrals for other services. May also provide case and care management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.
32.69 24.66 26.58 29.34 37.01 47.82
Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers
Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.
29.20 21.91 24.85 27.82 30.21 39.55
Rehabilitation Counselors
Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, aging, or the stress of daily life. Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement. Excludes “Occupational Therapists” (29-1122).
34.34 21.04 29.60 37.16 38.20 43.45
Social Workers, All Other
All social workers not listed separately.
26.56 17.87 21.20 25.01 29.76 35.87
Social and Human Service Assistants
Assist other social and human service providers in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families. May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services. May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care. Excludes “Rehabilitation Counselors” (21-1015), “Psychiatric Technicians” (29-2053), “Personal Care Aides” (31-1122), and “Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs” (43-4061).
22.39 15.90 18.26 21.74 25.88 29.24

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Computer and Mathematical

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Computer Network Support Specialists
Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), cloud networks, servers, and other data communications networks. Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption. Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1241) and “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
37.20 25.81 29.70 35.46 41.71 52.09
Computer Occupations, All Other
All computer occupations not listed separately. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021), “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061), “Electrical and Electronics Engineers” (17-2070), “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021), “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021), and “Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers” (49-2011).
48.82 29.67 35.17 50.75 57.96 65.83
Computer Programmers
Create, modify, and test the code and scripts that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software and web developers or other individuals. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.
46.50 29.00 37.18 47.12 55.79 62.54
Computer Systems Analysts
Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to develop and implement solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions, improve existing computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and schedule limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software.
37.35 24.24 24.34 33.41 46.82 55.54
Computer User Support Specialists
Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, via telephone, or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems. Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1244).
29.59 22.22 23.91 28.66 32.64 40.31
Data Scientists
Develop and implement a set of techniques or analytics applications to transform raw data into meaningful information using data-oriented programming languages and visualization software. Apply data mining, data modeling, natural language processing, and machine learning to extract and analyze information from large structured and unstructured datasets. Visualize, interpret, and report data findings. May create dynamic data reports. Excludes “Statisticians” (15-2041), “Cartographers and Photogrammetrists” (17-1021), and “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021).
41.54 22.13 31.63 40.01 47.82 63.21
Network and Computer Systems Administrators
Install, configure, and maintain an organization’s local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), data communications network, operating systems, and physical and virtual servers. Perform system monitoring and verify the integrity and availability of hardware, network, and server resources and systems. Review system and application logs and verify completion of scheduled jobs, including system backups. Analyze network and server resource consumption and control user access. Install and upgrade software and maintain software licenses. May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1212), “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1231), and “Computer User Support Specialists” (15-1232).
44.39 30.54 36.57 46.09 49.98 55.93
Software Developers
Research, design, and develop computer and network software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Update software or enhance existing software capabilities. May work with computer hardware engineers to integrate hardware and software systems, and develop specifications and performance requirements. May maintain databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.
72.15 45.58 55.01 78.91 85.11 85.31

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Construction and Extraction

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Construct, erect, install, or repair structures and fixtures made of wood and comparable materials, such as concrete forms; building frameworks, including partitions, joists, studding, and rafters; and wood stairways, window and door frames, and hardwood floors. May also install cabinets, siding, drywall, and batt or roll insulation. Includes brattice builders who build doors or brattices (ventilation walls or partitions) in underground passageways.
35.88 22.81 27.99 30.70 40.36 60.25
Construction Laborers
Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites. May operate hand and power tools of all types: air hammers, earth tampers, cement mixers, small mechanical hoists, surveying and measuring equipment, and a variety of other equipment and instruments. May clean and prepare sites, dig trenches, set braces to support the sides of excavations, erect scaffolding, and clean up rubble, debris, and other waste materials. May assist other craft workers. Construction laborers who primarily assist a particular craft worker are classified under “Helpers, Construction Trades” (47-3010). Excludes “Hazardous Materials Removal Workers” (47-4041).
25.99 17.06 20.64 23.86 28.85 33.11
Construction and Building Inspectors
Inspect structures using engineering skills to determine structural soundness and compliance with specifications, building codes, and other regulations. Inspections may be general in nature or may be limited to a specific area, such as electrical systems or plumbing.
40.45 29.66 36.01 38.43 46.10 51.57
Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas
Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud or fluid through drill hole.
36.60 31.56 31.63 37.79 37.82 39.41
Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas
Operate a variety of drills such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic to tap subsurface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators.
31.38 24.17 27.14 33.14 35.00 39.23
Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. May install or service street lights, intercom systems, or electrical control systems. Excludes “Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers” (49-2098).
40.10 22.23 29.64 39.31 47.80 58.61
Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators, Surface Mining
Operate or tend machinery at surface mining site, equipped with scoops, shovels, or buckets to excavate and load loose materials.
40.00 29.82 34.75 38.20 47.70 47.70
First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers.
46.71 24.50 34.58 45.98 58.93 74.26
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers
Identify, remove, pack, transport, or dispose of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead-based paint, waste oil, fuel, transmission fluid, radioactive materials, or contaminated soil. Specialized training and certification in hazardous materials handling or a confined entry permit are generally required. May operate earth-moving equipment or trucks.
25.55 12.41 22.04 23.78 26.85 42.65
Helpers--Extraction Workers
Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area. Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).
23.99 18.19 22.47 22.56 29.03 29.52
Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators
Operate one or several types of power construction equipment, such as motor graders, bulldozers, scrapers, compressors, pumps, derricks, shovels, tractors, or front-end loaders to excavate, move, and grade earth, erect structures, or pour concrete or other hard surface pavement. May repair and maintain equipment in addition to other duties. Excludes “Extraction Workers” (47-5000) and “Crane and Tower Operators” (53-7021).
37.52 26.87 30.19 35.41 46.03 48.95
Painters, Construction and Maintenance
Paint walls, equipment, buildings, bridges, and other structural surfaces, using brushes, rollers, and spray guns. May remove old paint to prepare surface prior to painting. May mix colors or oils to obtain desired color or consistency. Excludes “Paperhangers” (47-2142).
34.66 24.35 30.00 32.46 41.19 51.57
Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators
Operate equipment used for applying concrete, asphalt, or other materials to road beds, parking lots, or airport runways and taxiways or for tamping gravel, dirt, or other materials. Includes concrete and asphalt paving machine operators, form tampers, tamping machine operators, and stone spreader operators.
27.45 19.08 19.08 19.08 38.95 46.55
Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters
Assemble, install, alter, and repair pipelines or pipe systems that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases. May install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Includes sprinkler fitters.
39.26 23.96 36.96 38.95 44.92 49.98
Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas
Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas” (47-5023).
44.24 32.39 39.00 42.34 51.75 51.75
Roustabouts, Oil and Gas
Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed.
30.23 23.86 25.72 29.09 34.54 35.98
Service Unit Operators, Oil and Gas
Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. Includes fishing-tool technicians.
53.15 28.78 43.16 59.22 59.54 69.16
Sheet Metal Workers
Fabricate, assemble, install, and repair sheet metal products and equipment, such as ducts, control boxes, drainpipes, and furnace casings. Work may involve any of the following: setting up and operating fabricating machines to cut, bend, and straighten sheet metal; shaping metal over anvils, blocks, or forms using hammer; operating soldering and welding equipment to join sheet metal parts; or inspecting, assembling, and smoothing seams and joints of burred surfaces. Includes sheet metal duct installers who install prefabricated sheet metal ducts used for heating, air conditioning, or other purposes.
43.69 26.90 35.61 47.39 48.64 56.64
Underground Mining Machine Operators, All Other
All underground mining machine operators not listed separately.
40.18 36.95 36.95 40.18 40.49 47.88

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Education, Training, and Library

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach vocational courses intended to provide occupational training below the baccalaureate level in subjects such as construction, mechanics/repair, manufacturing, transportation, or cosmetology, primarily to students who have graduated from or left high school. Teaching takes place in public or private schools whose primary business is academic or vocational education. Excludes “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151), “Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors” (25-3011), and postsecondary teachers classified elsewhere in the 25-1000 minor group. Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
34.68 23.94 32.31 32.49 39.58 46.39
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School
Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the secondary school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
78,770.00 47,790.00 67,840.00 81,610.00 97,280.00 99,940.00
Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions. May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.
38.69 28.76 29.96 32.00 46.66 58.39
Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education
Teach academic and social skills to students at the elementary school level. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
80,130.00 62,800.00 65,120.00 80,180.00 93,810.00 100,260.00
English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
78,010.00 61,140.00 67,650.00 80,480.00 80,480.00 101,460.00
Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English. Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL). Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
50,900.00 32,390.00 39,470.00 49,130.00 70,140.00 70,140.00
Instructional Coordinators
Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology into instruction in order to provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses. May train and coach teachers. Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.
33.22 19.87 24.45 31.30 39.71 47.46
Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education
Teach academic and social skills to kindergarten students. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050) and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
69,680.00 55,470.00 59,700.00 65,250.00 80,720.00 85,350.00
Librarians and Media Collections Specialists
Administer and maintain libraries or collections of information, for public or private access through reference or borrowing. Work in a variety of settings, such as educational institutions, museums, and corporations, and with various types of informational materials, such as books, periodicals, recordings, films, and databases. Tasks may include acquiring, cataloging, and circulating library materials, and user services such as locating and organizing information, providing instruction on how to access information, and setting up and operating a library’s media equipment.
32.65 19.56 26.42 30.44 40.17 46.21
Library Technicians
Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.
24.51 16.91 21.82 24.95 28.49 28.92
Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education
Teach one or more subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School” (25-2023), “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short Term” (25-3031).
75,350.00 63,330.00 65,710.00 74,010.00 83,250.00 93,290.00
Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary
Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
103,930.00 73,020.00 84,290.00 99,050.00 127,140.00 127,240.00
Postsecondary Teachers, All Other
All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.
106,330.00 51,100.00 62,970.00 93,690.00 133,620.00 161,460.00
Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education
Instruct preschool-aged students, following curricula or lesson plans, in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth. Excludes “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031), and “Childcare Workers” (39-9011).
28.39 13.92 22.03 23.48 32.54 46.85
Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education
Teach one or more subjects to students at the secondary school level. Excludes “Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School” (25-2032), “Special Education Teachers” (25-2050), and “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
80,250.00 62,360.00 66,420.00 79,940.00 95,330.00 99,450.00
Self-Enrichment Teachers
Teach or instruct individuals or groups for the primary purpose of self-enrichment or recreation, rather than for an occupational objective, educational attainment, competition, or fitness. Excludes “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022) and “Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors” (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).
31.27 21.46 26.29 31.00 36.93 36.98
Special Education Teachers, Middle School
Teach academic, social, and life skills to middle school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
76,300.00 48,420.00 63,740.00 78,110.00 94,870.00 94,870.00
Special Education Teachers, Secondary School
Teach academic, social, and life skills to secondary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities. Excludes “Substitute Teachers, Short-Term” (25-3031).
79,740.00 66,060.00 68,200.00 80,460.00 83,860.00 99,070.00
Substitute Teachers, Short-Term
Teach students on a short-term basis as a temporary replacement for a regular classroom teacher, typically using the regular teacher’s lesson plan. Excludes long-term substitute teachers who perform all the duties of a regular teacher; these teachers are coded within the 25-1000 or 25-2000 minor groups.
34.43 16.04 18.66 21.86 26.30 36.99
Teachers and Instructors, All Other
All teachers and instructors not listed separately.
58,510.00 41,600.00 46,290.00 61,690.00 64,110.00 75,110.00
Instruct individual students or small groups of students in academic subjects to support formal class instruction or to prepare students for standardized or admissions tests. Excludes “Postsecondary Teachers” (25-1000), “Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Special Education Teachers” (25-2000), “Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors” (25-3011), and “Self-Enrichment Teachers” (25-3021).
26.27 17.38 22.26 22.26 29.08 40.38

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Farming, Fishing, and Forestry

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Logging Equipment Operators
Drive logging tractor or wheeled vehicle equipped with one or more accessories, such as bulldozer blade, frontal shear, grapple, logging arch, cable winches, hoisting rack, or crane boom, to fell tree; to skid, load, unload, or stack logs; or to pull stumps or clear brush. Includes operating stand-alone logging machines, such as log chippers. Logging truck drivers are included in “Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers” (53-3032).
28.48 18.34 21.28 29.02 35.00 38.36

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Food Preparation and Serving Related

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through waitstaff.
13.86 11.06 11.08 13.60 14.41 16.30
Chefs and Head Cooks
Direct and may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of salads, soups, fish, meats, vegetables, desserts, or other foods. May plan and price menu items, order supplies, and keep records and accounts.
31.18 20.28 21.62 29.65 36.81 48.20
Cooks, Fast Food
Prepare and cook food in a fast food restaurant with a limited menu. Duties of these cooks are limited to preparation of a few basic items and normally involve operating large-volume single-purpose cooking equipment.
15.25 12.93 13.30 13.60 17.57 18.35
Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria
Prepare and cook large quantities of food for institutions, such as schools, hospitals, or cafeterias.
23.11 16.19 18.29 22.77 26.09 31.23
Cooks, Restaurant
Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants. May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.
19.18 15.50 16.67 17.62 21.36 25.00
Cooks, Short Order
Prepare and cook to order a variety of foods that require only a short preparation time. May take orders from customers and serve patrons at counters or tables. Excludes “Cooks, Fast Food” (35-2011).
19.98 17.04 17.87 18.25 21.99 24.53
Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers
Facilitate food service. Clean tables; remove dirty dishes; replace soiled table linens; set tables; replenish supply of clean linens, silverware, glassware, and dishes; supply service bar with food; and serve items such as water, condiments, and coffee to patrons.
13.64 11.02 11.03 12.00 14.80 15.84
Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.
14.73 12.16 13.76 14.20 16.30 17.15
Fast Food and Counter Workers
Perform duties such as taking orders and serving food and beverages. Serve customers at counter or from a steam table. May take payment. May prepare food and beverages. Counter attendants who also wait tables are included in “Waiters and Waitresses” (35-3031). Includes Baristas.
14.24 11.69 13.07 13.82 14.47 17.30
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.
22.67 15.00 17.87 21.80 25.24 31.03
Food Preparation Workers
Perform a variety of food preparation duties other than cooking, such as preparing cold foods and shellfish, slicing meat, and brewing coffee or tea. Baristas should be coded to 35-3023.
17.37 14.00 14.82 17.49 18.76 21.19
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant
Serve food to individuals outside of a restaurant environment, such as in hotel rooms, hospital rooms, residential care facilities, or cars. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023) and “Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers” (41-9091).
16.86 14.49 14.49 17.03 17.20 20.87
Waiters and Waitresses
Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023).
14.91 10.85 11.15 12.55 13.20 26.00

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Healthcare Practitioner and Technical

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians
31.26 18.70 20.87 26.39 37.87 50.54
Dental Hygienists
Administer oral hygiene care to patients. Assess patient oral hygiene problems or needs and maintain health records. Advise patients on oral health maintenance and disease prevention. May provide advanced care such as providing fluoride treatment or administering topical anesthesia.
54.41 45.75 47.01 57.28 58.82 60.60
Dentists, General
Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums. May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth. May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care. Excludes “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons” (29-1022), “Orthodontists” (29-1023), “Prosthodontists” (29-1024), and “Dentists, All Other Specialists” (29-1029).
92.73 49.75 54.20 224,590.00 234,740.00 *
Dietitians and Nutritionists
Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease. May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.
38.99 24.10 32.50 37.88 45.31 48.18
Emergency Medical Technicians
Assess injuries and illnesses and administer basic emergency medical care. May transport injured or sick persons to medical facilities. Excludes “Paramedics” (29-2043), “Firefighters” (33-2011), and “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011).
28.96 20.65 23.24 29.49 33.32 37.98
Emergency Medicine Physicians
Make immediate medical decisions and act to prevent death or further disability. Provide immediate recognition, evaluation, care, stabilization, and disposition of patients. May direct emergency medical staff in an emergency department.
* * * * * *
Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars
Apply knowledge of healthcare and information systems to assist in the design, development, and continued modification and analysis of computerized healthcare systems. Abstract, collect, and analyze treatment and followup information of patients. May educate staff and assist in problem solving to promote the implementation of the healthcare information system. May design, develop, test, and implement databases with complete history, diagnosis, treatment, and health status to help monitor diseases. Excludes “Medical Records Specialists” (29?2072).
31.21 19.54 22.00 24.44 38.30 57.97
Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other
All health technologists and technicians not listed separately.
26.54 18.55 21.26 22.57 28.78 38.14
Healthcare Diagnosing or Treating Practitioners, All Other
All healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners not listed separately.
40.17 23.23 26.84 48.62 48.64 50.23
Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other
All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately.
34.58 18.61 25.96 25.96 46.15 58.15
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses
Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions. May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.
38.70 29.08 31.89 37.29 44.80 50.16
Medical Records Specialists
Compile, process, and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients in a manner consistent with medical, administrative, ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements of the healthcare system. Classify medical and healthcare concepts, including diagnosis, procedures, medical services, and equipment, into the healthcare industry’s numerical coding system. Includes medical coders. Excludes “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021) and “File Clerks” (43-4071).
28.42 22.18 23.00 26.60 31.06 39.20
Nurse Practitioners
Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team. May focus on health promotion and disease prevention. May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays. May prescribe medication. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.
62.15 28.74 39.08 64.88 77.69 89.77
Occupational Therapists
Assess, plan, and organize rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays. Use therapeutic techniques, adapt the individual’s environment, teach skills, and modify specific tasks that present barriers to the individual. Excludes “Rehabilitation Counselors” (21-1015).
47.43 29.02 46.57 49.44 52.30 62.62
Opticians, Dispensing
Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification. Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses. Assist client with selecting frames. Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription. Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames. Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles. Adjust frame and lens position to fit client. May shape or reshape frames. Includes contact lens opticians.
24.77 17.96 23.00 26.00 26.00 28.34
Administer basic or advanced emergency medical care and assess injuries and illnesses. May administer medication intravenously, use equipment such as EKGs, or administer advanced life support to sick or injured individuals. Excludes “Emergency Medical Technicians” (29-2042) and “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011).
35.74 28.20 31.60 33.35 40.67 46.54
Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.
74.81 41.31 66.69 72.56 78.99 96.10
Pharmacy Technicians
Prepare medications under the direction of a pharmacist. May measure, mix, count out, label, and record amounts and dosages of medications according to prescription orders.
24.14 17.87 18.96 23.44 26.91 30.29
Physical Therapists
Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and improve or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.
55.74 48.42 49.89 55.00 60.53 64.01
Physician Assistants
Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients. May, in some cases, prescribe medication. Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants. Excludes “Registered Nurses” (29-1141), “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171), “Emergency Medical Technicians” (29-2042), “Paramedics” (29-2043), “Surgical Assistants” (29-9093), and “Medical Assistants” (31-9092).
65.45 22.75 62.10 68.11 77.71 84.31
Physicians, All Other
All physicians not listed separately.
240,330.00 76.17 82.19 95.00 * *
Radiologic Technologists and Technicians
Take x-rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient’s bloodstream for diagnostic or research purposes. Includes radiologic technologists and technicians who specialize in other scanning modalities. Excludes “Diagnostic Medical Sonographers” (29-2032) and “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists” (29-2035).
44.88 35.85 37.73 46.62 48.45 55.85
Registered Nurses
Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients. May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management. Licensing or registration required. Includes Clinical Nurse Specialists. Excludes “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).
52.66 37.94 43.64 50.44 59.61 61.21
Respiratory Therapists
Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders. Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.
45.61 40.55 40.72 45.21 46.36 53.49
Speech-Language Pathologists
Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select alternative communication systems and teach their use. May perform research related to speech and language problems.
44.25 31.94 38.23 44.84 49.67 51.60
Surgical Technologists
Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel. May help set up operating room, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeons’ assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments. Excludes “Surgical Assistants” (29-9093).
33.09 24.52 24.52 34.57 37.77 39.93
Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals. Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.
67.67 29.18 39.81 49.88 61.55 *
Veterinary Technologists and Technicians
Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals. Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases. Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts. Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines. May assist a veterinarian during surgery.
22.63 16.95 20.06 22.70 25.87 26.24

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Healthcare Support

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Dental Assistants
Perform limited clinical duties under the direction of a dentist. Clinical duties may include equipment preparation and sterilization, preparing patients for treatment, assisting the dentist during treatment, and providing patients with instructions for oral healthcare procedures. May perform administrative duties such as scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes.
25.63 17.71 20.44 24.57 27.79 35.97
Healthcare Support Workers, All Other
All healthcare support workers not listed separately.
32.09 24.29 27.60 30.45 39.64 39.89
Home Health and Personal Care Aides
19.54 16.27 16.93 18.53 21.13 23.92
Massage Therapists
Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints. May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.
45.04 25.55 28.83 30.00 67.83 80.19
Medical Assistants
Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician. Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes. Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by physician. Excludes “Physician Assistants” (29-1071).
24.96 19.58 22.11 23.50 27.70 30.44
Medical Equipment Preparers
Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.
23.82 12.01 12.01 23.12 28.10 39.05
Nursing Assistants
Provide or assist with basic care or support under the direction of onsite licensed nursing staff. Perform duties such as monitoring of health status, feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, or ambulation of patients in a health or nursing facility. May include medication administration and other health-related tasks. Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants. Excludes “Home Health Aides” (31-1121), “Personal Care Aides” (31-1122), “Orderlies” (31-1132), and “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1133).
23.65 18.97 19.99 22.84 27.29 29.22
Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research. May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.
24.48 17.73 18.97 25.68 28.08 32.77
Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers
Feed, water, and examine pets and other nonfarm animals for signs of illness, disease, or injury in laboratories and animal hospitals and clinics. Clean and disinfect cages and work areas, and sterilize laboratory and surgical equipment. May provide routine postoperative care, administer medication orally or topically, or prepare samples for laboratory examination under the supervision of veterinary or laboratory animal technologists or technicians, veterinarians, or scientists. Excludes “Animal Caretakers” (39-2021).
17.14 14.24 16.40 16.98 17.16 18.89

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Installation, Maintenance, and Repair

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians
Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091).
39.24 28.35 31.52 38.59 46.75 49.89
Automotive Body and Related Repairers
Repair and refinish automotive vehicle bodies and straighten vehicle frames. Excludes “Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers” (49-3022) and “Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9124).
32.32 24.24 31.13 34.30 36.19 36.97
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics
Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul automotive vehicles. Excludes “Automotive Body and Related Repairers” (49-3021), “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031), and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
31.01 22.00 24.07 30.41 37.33 41.51
Avionics Technicians
Install, inspect, test, adjust, or repair avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, navigation, and missile control systems in aircraft or space vehicles.
31.12 17.89 30.43 30.43 36.84 38.47
Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists
Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul buses and trucks, or maintain and repair any type of diesel engines. Includes mechanics working primarily with automobile or marine diesel engines.
34.18 22.25 28.40 30.15 42.49 47.48
Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door
Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.
45.84 30.99 38.93 46.45 55.40 58.45
Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers
Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers. Excludes “Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay” (49-2095).
48.25 37.20 44.44 48.73 49.68 63.00
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment
Repair, test, adjust, or install electronic equipment, such as industrial controls, transmitters, and antennas. Excludes “Avionics Technicians” (49-2091), “Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment” (49-2093), and “Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles” (49-2096).
39.67 27.72 27.72 38.33 47.75 49.75
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay
Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.
42.10 17.36 24.08 50.75 56.06 60.98
First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. May also advise customers on recommended services. Excludes team or work leaders.
46.77 27.67 35.24 47.03 60.11 65.22
Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers
Install or repair heating, central air conditioning, HVAC, or refrigeration systems, including oil burners, hot-air furnaces, and heating stoves.
35.29 21.50 22.76 31.62 46.95 55.36
Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers
Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work area, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.
27.37 15.00 19.19 26.20 32.00 40.46
Industrial Machinery Mechanics
Repair, install, adjust, or maintain industrial production and processing machinery or refinery and pipeline distribution systems. May also install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to plans. Excludes “Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines” (49-3042), and “Maintenance Workers, Machinery” (49-9043).
40.35 19.72 33.15 40.63 49.42 56.86
Maintenance Workers, Machinery
Lubricate machinery, change parts, or perform other routine machinery maintenance. Excludes “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General” (49-9071).
34.65 21.30 22.51 41.54 41.54 48.60
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General
Perform work involving the skills of two or more maintenance or craft occupations to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of a building in repair. Duties may involve pipe fitting; HVAC maintenance; insulating; welding; machining; carpentry; repairing electrical or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs. Excludes “Facilities Managers” (11-3013) and “Maintenance Workers, Machinery” (49-9043).
30.82 16.75 22.12 27.62 37.44 48.76
Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines
Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and mining. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031) and “Rail Car Repairers” (49-3043).
37.93 28.88 30.91 36.81 41.18 49.54
Motorboat Mechanics and Service Technicians
Repair and adjust electrical and mechanical equipment of inboard or inboard-outboard boat engines. Excludes “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031).
30.47 25.00 28.75 29.36 33.09 34.73
Motorcycle Mechanics
Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul motorcycles, scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, or similar motorized vehicles.
21.35 17.63 17.96 18.52 25.03 28.36
Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other
All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately.
52.24 40.40 49.85 57.30 57.95 60.68
Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers
Install, set up, rearrange, or remove switching, distribution, routing, and dialing equipment used in central offices or headends. Service or repair telephone, cable television, Internet, and other communications equipment on customers’ property. May install communications equipment or communications wiring in buildings. Excludes “Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers” (49-9052).
31.81 16.50 20.42 29.25 45.94 46.28
Tire Repairers and Changers
Repair and replace tires.
21.01 14.67 15.99 18.07 28.05 31.14

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Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates
Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies.
72.52 28.05 47.39 79.05 98.16 236,180.00
Paralegals and Legal Assistants
Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent. Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action. Excludes “Legal Secretaries and Administrative Assistants” (43-6012).
33.42 22.33 26.96 31.05 39.06 45.95

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Life, Physical, and Social Science

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Anthropologists and Archeologists
Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.
40.59 28.66 30.95 41.19 47.88 53.86
Biological Scientists, All Other
All biological scientists not listed separately.
46.03 29.07 37.45 44.93 54.61 58.35
Biological Technicians
Assist biological and medical scientists. Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, collect data and samples, make observations, and calculate and record results. May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.
26.70 19.98 20.52 25.30 29.31 39.01
Chemical Technicians
Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.
31.37 22.31 22.95 30.66 37.37 43.17
Conservation Scientists
Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists” (19-1023) and “Foresters” (19-1032).
38.31 24.18 26.17 31.98 44.88 63.07
Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy. May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods. Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists” (13-1161).
51.90 31.32 37.81 51.25 68.37 68.37
Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health
Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.
29.38 17.79 20.93 26.89 31.40 39.04
Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health
Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or public health. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources. Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists” (19-1023), “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031), “Forest and Conservation Technicians” (19-4071), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Fish and Game Wardens” (33-3031), and “Forest and Conservation Workers” (45-4011).
40.03 22.00 28.24 35.26 51.35 62.67
Forest and Conservation Technicians
Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts under the direction of foresters, or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation and fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031) and “Foresters” (19-1032).
26.89 20.42 20.42 25.30 30.95 36.71
Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes. May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber’s worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement. May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations. May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.
39.52 31.44 35.08 39.48 44.93 48.68
Geological Technicians, Except Hydrologic Technicians
Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in laboratory, exploration, and production activities to obtain data indicating resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.
35.69 23.59 23.62 31.85 39.09 62.07
Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers
Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth’s internal composition, atmospheres, and oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.
63.90 36.11 49.81 62.11 77.69 218,390.00
Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other
All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.
33.36 21.81 25.30 29.88 39.76 54.82
Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research. Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in “Healthcare Diagnosing or Treating Practitioners” (29-1000).
50.67 38.88 44.28 50.39 55.79 55.79
Occupational Health and Safety Specialists
Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors. May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals. May be employed in the public or private sector.
44.08 22.36 35.08 40.94 49.46 64.37
Occupational Health and Safety Technicians
Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists. Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.
34.40 24.00 24.20 25.00 40.09 60.11
School Psychologists
Diagnose and implement individual or schoolwide interventions or strategies to address educational, behavioral, or developmental issues that adversely impact educational functioning in a school. May address student learning and behavioral problems and counsel students or families. May design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performance. May consult with other school-based personnel.
52.13 31.44 36.74 47.01 71.58 71.58
Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other
All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.
40.80 35.00 35.00 35.00 43.69 50.87
Urban and Regional Planners
Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.
32.83 21.35 21.35 27.00 39.51 48.86
Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.
42.35 29.69 34.70 41.33 47.43 58.35

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Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Administrative Services Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, and other office support services. Medical records administrators are included in “Medical and Health Services Managers” (11-9111). Excludes “Facilities Managers” (11-3013) and “Purchasing Managers” (11-3061).
52.28 31.32 38.27 45.51 60.48 80.55
Chief Executives
Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.
85.64 25.00 49.26 68.63 220,000.00 *
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming. Excludes “Computer Occupations” (15-1211 through 15-1299).
64.43 40.67 50.05 65.32 75.18 91.14
Construction Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems. Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation. Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.
62.29 34.85 48.00 59.55 78.27 95.56
Education Administrators, All Other
All education administrators not listed separately.
45.66 29.69 32.56 41.73 49.40 66.98
Education Administrators, Kindergarten through Secondary
Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of kindergarten, elementary, or secondary schools.
118,760.00 89,690.00 101,790.00 121,570.00 127,210.00 136,590.00
Education Administrators, Postsecondary
Plan, direct, or coordinate student instruction, administration, and services, as well as other research and educational activities, at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.
54.34 38.45 38.60 50.35 68.73 71.07
Entertainment and Recreation Managers, Except Gambling
Plan, direct, or coordinate entertainment and recreational activities and operations of a recreational facility, including cruise ships and parks.
40.59 20.36 31.09 34.97 54.57 63.68
Facilities Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate operations and functionalities of facilities and buildings. May include surrounding grounds or multiple facilities of an organization’s campus. Excludes “Administrative Services Managers” (11-3012), “Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers” (11-9141), “First-Line Supervisors of Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Workers” (37-1010), “First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics and Repairers” (49-1011), and “Maintenance and Repair Workers, General” (49-9071).
57.34 32.04 44.92 52.20 66.52 81.72
Financial Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment. Excludes “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054).
64.28 39.47 46.37 55.28 73.61 93.34
Food Service Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages. Excludes “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).
34.57 21.17 25.86 30.11 37.37 52.66
Fundraising Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.
59.56 28.82 39.14 53.02 64.96 76.03
General and Operations Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations, overseeing multiple departments or locations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Usually manage through subordinate supervisors. Excludes First-Line Supervisors.
57.22 24.10 34.99 50.60 71.43 95.59
Human Resources Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization. Excludes managers who primarily focus on compensation and benefits (11-3111) and training and development (11-3131).
62.71 37.36 48.45 61.52 74.18 85.61
Industrial Production Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.
64.62 49.42 50.97 61.35 75.13 80.82
Develop, introduce, or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, state, or federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.
95,570.00 31,070.00 31,110.00 32,730.00 201,700.00 218,220.00
Lodging Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations. Excludes “Food Service Managers” (11-9051) in lodging establishments.
31.87 15.41 24.67 30.53 37.50 44.76
Managers, All Other
All managers not listed separately.
58.48 32.18 41.72 54.49 71.56 86.77
Marketing Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm’s profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.
55.58 31.99 43.34 54.58 61.21 64.65
Medical and Health Services Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate medical and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.
68.28 37.39 47.99 56.48 77.03 *
Natural Sciences Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021) and “Architecture and Engineering Managers” (11-9041).
54.58 32.90 43.99 55.36 64.00 73.92
Postmasters and Mail Superintendents
Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and support services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.
29.29 22.08 24.62 26.13 31.99 40.30
Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties. Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).
36.82 17.36 25.32 35.52 47.21 52.15
Public Relations Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client.
60.11 29.71 40.78 56.40 72.89 209,120.00
Purchasing Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services. Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.
52.36 34.66 38.10 45.36 62.95 81.31
Sales Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer. Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives. Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.
47.64 30.65 32.88 41.34 55.06 69.08
Social and Community Service Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization. Oversee the program or organization’s budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits. Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.
43.47 20.98 31.32 44.05 51.89 62.80
Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.
57.15 28.79 43.37 52.96 65.12 97.31

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Office and Administrative Support

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Bill and Account Collectors
Locate and notify customers of delinquent accounts by mail, telephone, or personal visit to solicit payment. Duties include receiving payment and posting amount to customer’s account, preparing statements to credit department if customer fails to respond, initiating repossession proceedings or service disconnection, and keeping records of collection and status of accounts.
28.74 25.32 25.86 30.13 30.13 33.34
Billing and Posting Clerks
Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes. Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods. Excludes “Medical Records Specialists” (29-2072).
22.08 12.64 15.50 22.24 28.98 32.57
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks
Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete. Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records. May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers. Excludes “Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks” (43-3051).
26.47 17.39 21.81 25.00 30.08 35.78
Cargo and Freight Agents
Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.
29.19 18.72 22.92 28.93 36.71 40.58
Court, Municipal, and License Clerks
Perform clerical duties for courts of law, municipalities, or governmental licensing agencies and bureaus. May prepare docket of cases to be called; secure information for judges and court; prepare draft agendas or bylaws for town or city council; answer official correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; issue licenses or permits; and record data, administer tests, or collect fees. Clerks of Court are classified in “Managers, All Other” (11-9199).
31.34 19.51 23.72 28.55 38.72 47.45
Customer Service Representatives
Interact with customers to provide basic or scripted information in response to routine inquiries about products and services. May handle and resolve general complaints. Excludes individuals whose duties are primarily installation, sales, repair, and technical support.
23.04 14.91 17.57 21.68 27.07 32.46
Data Entry Keyers
Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes “Word Processors and Typists” (43-9022).
23.74 16.58 20.86 24.52 26.34 30.71
Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance
Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.
29.05 17.45 21.75 28.75 34.15 43.88
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs
Determine eligibility of persons applying to receive assistance from government programs and agency resources, such as welfare, unemployment benefits, social security, and public housing.
29.40 24.05 25.25 28.00 32.85 37.83
Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants
Provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, and handling information requests, as well as performing routine administrative functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. May also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff. Excludes “Secretaries” (43-6012 through 43-6014).
30.77 20.00 24.00 29.62 36.00 40.99
File Clerks
File correspondence, cards, invoices, receipts, and other records in alphabetical or numerical order or according to the filing system used. Locate and remove material from file when requested.
22.03 13.98 16.89 21.21 27.03 36.99
First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.
32.61 21.27 26.53 30.59 37.61 44.56
Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks
Accommodate hotel, motel, and resort patrons by registering and assigning rooms to guests, issuing room keys or cards, transmitting and receiving messages, keeping records of occupied rooms and guests’ accounts, making and confirming reservations, and presenting statements to and collecting payments from departing guests.
16.72 13.55 14.89 16.66 17.85 20.02
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping
Compile and keep personnel records. Record data for each employee, such as address, weekly earnings, absences, amount of sales or production, supervisory reports, and date of and reason for termination. May prepare reports for employment records, file employment records, or search employee files and furnish information to authorized persons.
27.71 22.59 25.12 27.10 30.08 32.94
Information and Record Clerks, All Other
All information and record clerks not listed separately.
23.34 12.50 20.12 23.73 26.99 32.05
Legal Secretaries and Administrative Assistants
Perform secretarial duties using legal terminology, procedures, and documents. Prepare legal papers and correspondence, such as summonses, complaints, motions, and subpoenas. May also assist with legal research.
27.62 21.59 22.00 26.89 30.08 39.18
Library Assistants, Clerical
Compile records, and sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm. Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials. Excludes “Library Technicians” (25-4031).
20.53 14.37 18.50 19.87 22.06 25.32
Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service
Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Time-stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms.
20.78 12.31 14.75 16.78 25.47 36.88
Medical Secretaries and Administrative Assistants
Perform secretarial duties using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures. Duties may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, and compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.
22.17 15.96 18.67 23.11 24.22 28.96
New Accounts Clerks
Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions. Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.
21.66 21.78 22.12 22.12 22.12 22.12
Office Clerks, General
Perform duties too varied and diverse to be classified in any specific office clerical occupation, requiring knowledge of office systems and procedures. Clerical duties may be assigned in accordance with the office procedures of individual establishments and may include a combination of answering telephones, bookkeeping, typing or word processing, office machine operation, and filing.
23.58 17.11 18.75 22.58 27.88 30.93
Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other
All office and administrative support workers not listed separately.
20.72 11.31 11.31 20.77 25.96 34.36
Order Clerks
Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities. Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means. Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints. Excludes “Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance” (43-5032) who both dispatch and take orders for services.
20.78 17.53 17.53 17.53 17.81 39.86
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
Compile and record employee time and payroll data. May compute employees’ time worked, production, and commission. May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks. Excludes “Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks” (43-3031).
25.77 17.53 19.33 25.00 29.82 38.57
Postal Service Clerks
Perform any combination of tasks in a United States Postal Service (USPS) post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeon holes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage. Includes postal service clerks employed by USPS contractors.
23.07 15.36 15.81 25.81 27.76 32.47
Postal Service Mail Carriers
Sort and deliver mail for the United States Postal Service (USPS). Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot. Includes postal service mail carriers employed by USPS contractors.
27.60 19.33 23.11 26.09 32.17 36.20
Procurement Clerks
Compile information and records to draw up purchase orders for procurement of materials and services. Excludes “Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products” (13-1022).
26.30 16.46 22.42 25.00 31.04 35.95
Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks
Coordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within or between departments of an establishment according to production schedule. Duties include reviewing and distributing production, work, and shipment schedules; conferring with department supervisors to determine progress of work and completion dates; and compiling reports on progress of work, inventory levels, costs, and production problems. Excludes “Project Management Specialists” (13-1082) and “Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping” (43-5111).
27.09 18.97 23.49 24.31 30.38 34.53
Public Safety Telecommunicators
Operate telephone, radio, or other communication systems to receive and communicate requests for emergency assistance at 9-1-1 public safety answering points and emergency operations centers. Take information from the public and other sources regarding crimes, threats, disturbances, acts of terrorism, fires, medical emergencies, and other public safety matters. May coordinate and provide information to law enforcement and emergency response personnel. May access sensitive databases and other information sources as needed. May provide additional instructions to callers based on knowledge of and certification in law enforcement, fire, or emergency medical procedures.
28.75 25.00 25.73 28.42 30.19 35.89
Receptionists and Information Clerks
Answer inquiries and provide information to the general public, customers, visitors, and other interested parties regarding activities conducted at establishment and location of departments, offices, and employees within the organization. Excludes “Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service” (43-2011).
19.91 14.96 17.60 19.13 22.21 24.47
Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks
Make and confirm reservations for transportation or lodging, or sell transportation tickets. May check baggage and direct passengers to designated concourse, pier, or track; deliver tickets and contact individuals and groups to inform them of package tours; or provide tourists with travel or transportation information. Excludes "Cashiers” (41-2011), "Travel Agents” (41-3041), and "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081) who sell tickets for local transportation.
22.31 16.47 17.21 19.02 24.92 34.55
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive
Perform routine administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers. Excludes legal, medical, and executive secretaries (43-6011 through 43-6013).
21.90 13.98 16.97 21.93 26.16 30.35
Shipping, Receiving, and Inventory Clerks
Verify and maintain records on incoming and outgoing shipments involving inventory. Duties include verifying and recording incoming merchandise or material and arranging for the transportation of products. May prepare items for shipment. Excludes “Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping” (43-5111), “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, except Postal Service” (43-9051), and “Stockers and Order Fillers” (53-7065).
23.65 16.59 17.94 22.10 26.11 33.67
Receive and pay out money. Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution’s various transactions.
20.92 18.83 19.03 20.97 22.03 23.25

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Personal Care and Service

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Amusement and Recreation Attendants
Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility. May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.
18.26 12.80 14.18 16.42 21.87 26.49
Animal Caretakers
Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise provide care to promote and maintain the well-being of pets and other animals that are not raised for consumption, such as dogs, cats, race horses, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice. Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums. May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged. May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks. Excludes “Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers” (31-9096) and “Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals” (45-2093).
19.03 13.35 15.48 19.29 23.10 23.35
Childcare Workers
Attend to children at schools, businesses, private households, and childcare institutions. Perform a variety of tasks, such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play. Excludes “Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education” (25-2011) and “Teaching Assistants, Preschool, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School, Except Special Education” (25-9042).
17.06 14.00 15.04 15.98 17.79 22.92
Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors
Instruct or coach groups or individuals in exercise activities for the primary purpose of personal fitness. Demonstrate techniques and form, observe participants, and explain to them corrective measures necessary to improve their skills. Develop and implement individualized approaches to exercise. Excludes “Educational Instruction and Library Occupations” (25-0000), “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022), and “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091).
26.69 19.44 23.13 27.80 32.74 32.74
First-Line Supervisors of Entertainment and Recreation Workers, Except Gambling Services
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of entertainment and recreation related workers.
28.21 18.40 23.96 27.28 33.57 36.13
First-Line Supervisors of Gambling Services Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers in assigned gambling areas. May circulate among tables, observe operations, and ensure that stations and games are covered for each shift. May verify and pay off jackpots. May reset slot machines after payoffs and make repairs or adjustments to slot machines or recommend removal of slot machines for repair. May plan and organize activities and services for guests in hotels/casinos.
27.81 14.53 18.00 33.23 33.41 35.91
First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers
Supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers.
29.08 20.89 21.47 24.21 34.21 40.02
Gambling Service Workers, All Other
All gambling service workers not listed separately.
16.68 13.16 15.00 17.00 17.19 21.34
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists
Provide beauty services, such as cutting, coloring, and styling hair, and massaging and treating scalp. May shampoo hair, apply makeup, dress wigs, remove hair, and provide nail and skincare services. Excludes “Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance” (39-5091), “Manicurists and Pedicurists” (39-5092), and “Skincare Specialists” (39-5094).
20.45 12.13 14.11 18.09 24.01 26.94
Recreation Workers
Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities. Organize and promote activities, such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.
24.39 15.59 15.60 25.48 29.60 33.09
Residential Advisors
Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary school and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.
22.82 16.36 18.48 21.20 22.07 29.75
Tour and Travel Guides
25.62 16.67 21.09 24.10 29.27 41.00
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers
Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and helping patrons locate such facilities as restrooms and telephones.
15.83 10.85 13.73 15.20 20.00 20.10

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Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods. Pastry chefs in restaurants and hotels are included with “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).
16.84 10.85 12.97 17.83 20.00 22.30
Butchers and Meat Cutters
Cut, trim, or prepare consumer-sized portions of meat for use or sale in retail establishments.
21.03 15.36 16.72 21.81 22.75 29.88
Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
Set up, operate, or tend spraying or rolling machines to coat or paint any of a wide variety of products, including glassware, cloth, ceramics, metal, plastic, paper, or wood, with lacquer, silver, copper, rubber, varnish, glaze, enamel, oil, or rust-proofing materials. Includes painters of transportation vehicles such as painters in auto body repair facilities. Excludes “Plating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4193).
34.63 26.56 32.71 34.10 39.42 39.60
Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.
30.13 18.92 26.70 32.32 35.11 38.35
Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes “Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4031), “Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-6062), and “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-7040).
18.45 11.10 14.99 17.35 21.57 23.20
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.
42.41 19.70 27.00 45.38 49.75 62.69
Helpers--Production Workers
Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).
22.41 16.50 17.12 18.33 26.90 33.00
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers
Inspect, test, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications. May use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment.
42.53 18.60 18.61 44.00 62.89 62.89
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers
Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets. Includes spotters and dyers of these articles.
16.83 11.73 15.00 15.11 18.10 22.67
Set up and operate a variety of machine tools to produce precision parts and instruments out of metal. Includes precision instrument makers who fabricate, modify, or repair mechanical instruments. May also fabricate and modify parts to make or repair machine tools or maintain industrial machines, applying knowledge of mechanics, mathematics, metal properties, layout, and machining procedures. Machinists who primarily program or operate computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment are classified in “Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators and Programmers” (51-9160).
29.30 18.57 23.55 24.04 38.48 42.06
Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers
Use hands or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood.
16.85 14.49 14.99 17.09 17.34 17.77
Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators
26.79 18.10 24.09 29.29 29.51 33.50
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders
Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products.
19.47 16.77 17.00 17.31 22.36 25.48
Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers
Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.
51.15 33.90 45.09 52.85 59.75 60.84
Power Plant Operators
Control, operate, or maintain machinery to generate electric power. Includes auxiliary equipment operators. Excludes “Nuclear Power Reactor Operators” (51-8011).
37.35 17.00 25.04 38.67 47.20 62.13
Printing Press Operators
Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses.
20.84 14.20 16.71 20.43 22.19 28.37
Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes “Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders” (51-9011).
34.12 15.65 26.42 41.17 41.21 41.25
Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators
Operate or maintain stationary engines, boilers, or other mechanical equipment to provide utilities for buildings or industrial processes. Operate equipment such as steam engines, generators, motors, turbines, and steam boilers.
43.86 16.88 38.88 47.39 52.21 52.21
Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters
Fabricate, position, align, and fit parts of structural metal products. Shipfitters are included in “Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic” (51-4192).
28.34 22.63 23.22 28.71 35.50 36.00
Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators
Operate or control an entire process or system of machines, often through the use of control boards, to transfer or treat water or wastewater.
34.09 19.66 25.44 33.91 39.28 46.19
Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers
Use hand-welding, flame-cutting, hand-soldering, or brazing equipment to weld or join metal components or to fill holes, indentations, or seams of fabricated metal products.
40.31 31.05 35.78 37.83 43.97 49.52
Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
Set up, operate, or tend welding, soldering, or brazing machines or robots that weld, braze, solder, or heat treat metal products, components, or assemblies. Includes workers who operate laser cutters or laser-beam machines.
33.79 31.01 31.01 32.59 38.54 38.90

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Protective Service

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Correctional Officers and Jailers
Guard inmates in penal or rehabilitative institutions in accordance with established regulations and procedures. May guard prisoners in transit between jail, courtroom, prison, or other point. Includes deputy sheriffs and police who spend the majority of their time guarding prisoners in correctional institutions.
36.62 25.26 28.91 34.84 42.66 50.46
Detectives and Criminal Investigators
Conduct investigations related to suspected violations of federal, state, or local laws to prevent or solve crimes. Excludes “Private Detectives and Investigators” (33-9021).
48.21 36.75 38.45 43.23 48.67 75.61
Control and extinguish fires or respond to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk. Duties may include fire prevention, emergency medical service, hazardous material response, search and rescue, and disaster assistance.
30.71 19.42 23.93 30.47 39.22 39.80
First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.
52.20 39.54 45.41 48.31 59.65 72.62
First-Line Supervisors of Firefighting and Prevention Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention and control.
43.45 31.51 36.40 40.90 50.08 56.85
First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force.
52.51 23.07 40.33 48.77 62.94 75.62
First-Line Supervisors of Protective Service Workers, All Other
All protective service supervisors not listed separately above.
40.53 30.74 36.94 39.94 43.69 48.07
First-Line Supervisors of Security Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of security workers and security guards.
31.83 19.15 23.18 31.46 36.51 49.52
Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers
Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes, to provide assistance and protection to participants.
16.37 14.92 15.16 16.16 17.32 17.80
Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers
Maintain order and protect life and property by enforcing local, tribal, state, or federal laws and ordinances. Perform a combination of the following duties: patrol a specific area; direct traffic; issue traffic summonses; investigate accidents; apprehend and arrest suspects, or serve legal processes of courts. Includes police officers working at educational institutions.
40.04 18.46 30.61 37.61 50.34 61.91
Protective Service Workers, All Other
All protective service workers not listed separately.
25.24 20.42 20.42 25.30 28.67 33.01
Security Guards
Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules. May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment. Excludes “Police Officers” (33-3050) and “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).
24.35 17.79 18.04 22.74 29.17 32.84
Transportation Security Screeners
Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.
33.51 22.76 29.21 33.52 39.26 42.08

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Sales and Related

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions. May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment. May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks. Excludes “Gambling Change Persons and Booth Cashiers” (41-2012).
16.67 14.04 14.77 16.89 17.44 21.19
Counter and Rental Clerks
Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).
19.39 14.51 16.75 18.25 20.50 23.71
First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. May perform duties such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.
33.61 19.88 20.95 31.88 37.66 45.96
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers
Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department. Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.
25.93 17.12 20.28 23.51 30.14 37.20
Insurance Sales Agents
Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance. May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.
26.80 22.23 22.56 23.95 28.72 36.60
Parts Salespersons
Sell spare and replacement parts and equipment in repair shop or parts store.
20.74 13.76 17.13 18.08 22.51 34.88
Real Estate Brokers
Operate real estate office, or work for commercial real estate firm, overseeing real estate transactions. Other duties usually include selling real estate or renting properties and arranging loans.
32.21 23.67 27.54 27.54 38.79 44.73
Real Estate Sales Agents
Rent, buy, or sell property for clients. Perform duties such as study property listings, interview prospective clients, accompany clients to property site, discuss conditions of sale, and draw up real estate contracts. Includes agents who represent buyer.
38.34 23.32 30.80 37.14 49.37 54.90
Retail Salespersons
Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
18.47 13.85 15.21 17.12 20.70 22.44
Sales Representatives of Services, Except Advertising, Insurance, Financial Services, and Travel
Sell services to individuals or businesses. May describe options or resolve client problems. Excludes “Advertising Sales Agents” (41-3011), “Insurance Sales Agents” (41-3021), “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031), “Travel Agents” (41-3041), “Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing” (41-4010), and “Telemarketers” (41-9041).
31.56 14.72 20.53 28.43 34.74 57.32
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products
Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses or groups of individuals. Work requires substantial knowledge of items sold.
31.97 17.03 20.54 26.63 44.62 49.75
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products
Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers where technical or scientific knowledge is required in such areas as biology, engineering, chemistry, and electronics, normally obtained from at least 2 years of postsecondary education. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031).
35.67 22.21 24.06 29.34 41.68 75.03

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Transportation and Material Moving

Mean WageWage by Percentile
SOCOccupation TitleMean10th25thMedian75th90th
Air Traffic Controllers
Control air traffic on and within vicinity of airport, and movement of air traffic between altitude sectors and control centers, according to established procedures and policies. Authorize, regulate, and control commercial airline flights according to government or company regulations to expedite and ensure flight safety.
45.53 27.60 41.12 43.82 51.06 59.19
Airfield Operations Specialists
Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel, dispatching, using airfield landing and navigational aids, implementing airfield safety procedures, monitoring and maintaining flight records, and applying knowledge of weather information.
35.51 15.00 22.85 37.98 45.82 54.30
Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers
Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft, usually on scheduled air carrier routes, for the transport of passengers and cargo. Requires Federal Air Transport certificate and rating for specific aircraft type used. Includes regional, national, and international airline pilots and flight instructors of airline pilots. Excludes “Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians” (17-3024).
98,270.00 51,190.00 62,140.00 97,550.00 121,370.00 139,270.00
Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants
Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, refill antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).
18.84 14.25 15.39 15.91 18.49 29.42
Bus Drivers, School
Drive a school bus to transport students. Ensure adherence to safety rules. May assist students in boarding or exiting.
30.15 23.76 23.76 26.75 31.68 48.65
Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels
Command or supervise operations of ships and water vessels, such as tugboats and ferryboats. Required to hold license issued by U.S. Coast Guard. Excludes “Motorboat Operators” (53-5022).
41.84 18.00 30.01 40.00 48.75 69.41
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment
Wash or otherwise clean vehicles, machinery, and other equipment. Use such materials as water, cleaning agents, brushes, cloths, and hoses. Excludes “Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners” (37-2011).
16.36 14.52 15.10 16.47 17.27 17.72
Commercial Pilots
Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft on nonscheduled air carrier routes, or helicopters. Requires Commercial Pilot certificate. Includes charter pilots with similar certification, and air ambulance and air tour pilots. Excludes regional, national, and international airline pilots. Excludes “Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians” (17-3024).
105,260.00 44,500.00 73,210.00 103,920.00 140,190.00 153,580.00
Driver/Sales Workers
Drive truck or other vehicle over established routes or within an established territory and sell or deliver goods, such as food products, including restaurant take-out items, or pick up or deliver items such as commercial laundry. May also take orders, collect payment, or stock merchandise at point of delivery. Excludes “Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers” (49-9091) and “Light Truck Drivers” (53-3033).
19.54 11.93 17.07 18.60 21.94 28.99
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers
Drive a tractor-trailer combination or a truck with a capacity of at least 26,001 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). May be required to unload truck. Requires commercial drivers’ license. Includes tow truck drivers. Excludes “Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors” (53-7081).
33.48 22.02 27.67 30.92 36.79 45.26
Hoist and Winch Operators
Operate or tend hoists or winches to lift and pull loads using power-operated cable equipment. Excludes “Crane and Tower Operators” (53-7021).
22.35 17.46 19.09 24.33 24.43 25.94
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators
Operate industrial trucks or tractors equipped to move materials around a warehouse, storage yard, factory, construction site, or similar location. Excludes “Logging Equipment Operators” (45-4022).
27.63 17.02 20.86 25.14 36.67 42.78
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand
Manually move freight, stock, luggage, or other materials, or perform other general labor. Includes all manual laborers not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Construction Laborers” (47-2061) and “Helpers, Construction Trades” (47-3011 through 47-3019). Excludes “Material Moving Workers” (53-7011 through 53-7199) who use power equipment.
27.15 15.85 19.92 24.31 35.84 42.31
Light Truck Drivers
Drive a light vehicle, such as a truck or van, with a capacity of less than 26,001 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), primarily to pick up merchandise or packages from a distribution center and deliver. May load and unload vehicle. Excludes “Couriers and Messengers” (43-5021) and “Driver/Sales Workers” (53-3031).
28.01 16.93 18.16 24.34 35.37 44.10
Material Moving Workers, All Other
All material moving workers not listed separately.
23.60 17.77 18.72 21.99 27.68 30.10
Packers and Packagers, Hand
Pack or package by hand a wide variety of products and materials.
17.14 11.88 14.46 15.42 19.22 20.44
Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers
Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.
30.54 11.80 11.80 31.57 46.05 49.41
Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors
Collect and dump refuse or recyclable materials from containers into truck. May drive truck.
22.28 16.94 17.00 17.42 28.18 31.90
Sailors and Marine Oilers
Stand watch to look for obstructions in path of vessel, measure water depth, turn wheel on bridge, or use emergency equipment as directed by captain, mate, or pilot. Break out, rig, overhaul, and store cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear. Perform a variety of maintenance tasks to preserve the painted surface of the ship and to maintain line and ship equipment. Must hold government-issued certification and tankerman certification when working aboard liquid-carrying vessels. Includes able seamen and ordinary seamen.
29.24 20.77 26.17 29.06 31.33 36.04
Ship Engineers
Supervise and coordinate activities of crew engaged in operating and maintaining engines, boilers, deck machinery, and electrical, sanitary, and refrigeration equipment aboard ship. Excludes “Engineers” (17-2000).
41.80 24.68 33.71 35.03 48.18 70.64
Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs
Drive a motor vehicle to transport passengers on a planned or scheduled basis. May collect a fare. Includes nonemergency medical transporters and hearse drivers. Excludes “Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians” (53-3011) and “Taxi Drivers” (53-3054).
21.93 14.24 15.08 20.00 24.94 39.45
Stockers and Order Fillers
Receive, store, and issue merchandise, materials, equipment, and other items from stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard to fill shelves, racks, tables, or customers’ orders. May operate power equipment to fill orders. May mark prices on merchandise and set up sales displays. Excludes “Shipping, Receiving, and Inventory Clerks” (43-5071), “Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand” (53-7062), and “Packers and Packagers, Hand” (53-7064).
19.98 14.71 16.63 18.05 21.96 30.33
Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders
Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain, into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships, using material moving equipment. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.
35.96 30.04 36.21 38.46 38.46 38.46
Transportation Workers, All Other
All transportation workers not listed separately.
27.90 23.23 24.87 26.67 31.56 34.98

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* indicates the estimate is not available, or the hourly wage is greater than $100, or the annual wage is greater than $208,000.

Employment 2018:

The base year of the forecast cycle. Base-year employment estimates are required to develop the employment projections and the base-year employment matrix.

Employment 2028:

The target, or ending, year of the forecast cycle. In order to produce target-year occupational projections, a change factor is developed and applied to each occupation. An occupational staffing pattern is then applied to the projected industry total of each occupation to give a target-year occupational projection.


The difference between the employment in the forecast year and the base year.

Percent Change:

Numeric change divided by the base year employment. This number can be deceptive. A large percentage change does not necessarily mean a large number of jobs. For instance, if the base year for an occupation is 20 and the forecast year shows an increase of 10, it is a 50 percent increase. In reality, it is only 10 jobs.

Labor force exits:

A labor force exit occurs when a worker leaves an occupation, creating a vacancy for another worker to fill.

Percentile Wages include the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile:

Percentile Wages include the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile: This measure of wage is calculated by ranking workers in an occupation from lowest paid to highest paid. Then, it is easy to determine the wage where a certain percentage of workers make this amount or less. For example, at the 10th percentile wage, ten percent of all wage earners in that occupation make that wage or less. Similarly, at the 90th percentile, 90 percent of all wage earners in that occupation make that wage or less, and conversely, 10 percent make more than that wage. An often used measure of wage is the Median Wage, which is the 50th percentile wage. At the median wage, one-half of all workers make less than the indicated amount, while the other one-half earn more.

Occupational openings, annual average:

The occupational openings are the sum of the growth, exits, and transfers. The annual average is that total divided by the number of years.

Mean Wage:

The estimated total wages for an occupation divided by its weighted survey employment. It is sometimes referred to as the “weighted average.”

Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC):

Alaska’s Occupational Database (ODB) uses the SOC occupational classification system. The SOC system categorizes over 800 occupations into 23 major occupational groups.